ALBRIGHT, WILLIAM FOXWELL°

ALBRIGHT, WILLIAM FOXWELL° (1891–1971), U.S. biblical archaeologist and Semitics scholar. The son of Methodist missionaries, Albright studied at Johns Hopkins University, earning his doctorate under Paul Haupt. In 1929, he became professor of Semitic languages at Hopkins. He directed the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem, 1920–29 and 1933–36. Albright's excavations in Ereẓ Israel include Gibeath-Shaul (Tell al-Fūl), 1922–23, 1933; Adar and Bāb al-Dhrāʿ in Moab in 1924 and 1933; Beth-El in 1927 and 1934; and Petra in 1935. His main achievement in field work was the excavation of Tell Beit Mirsim (the biblical Debir?), which he directed in 1926, 1928, 1930, and 1932. He also participated in the University of California expedition to Sinai (1947–48) and was chief archaeologist of expeditions of the American Foundation for the Study of Man at Wadi Bayḥān (Beihan), Hajar Bin Humayd, and Timnaʿ in Arabia (1950–51). His main publications (apart from over 1,500 articles) are From the Stone Age to Christianity (1940; 19462); Archaeology and the Religion of Israel (1942); The Archaeology of Palestine (1949); and The Excavation of Tell Beit Mirsim (1932–43). In this last work, Albright laid the foundations for the scientific ceramic chronology of the Canaanite and Israelite periods in Ereẓ Israel: his philological and topographical studies solved some of the most difficult problems in Egyptian and Semitic philology and in the identification of places. In his approach to biblical history (The Biblical Period from Abram to Ezra (1949), New Horizons in Biblical Research (1966), and Archaeology, Historical Analogy, and Early Biblical Tradition (1966), Albright was a theologically conservative scholar, dating the Patriarchs to the first half of the second millennium on the basis of his intensive study of the Near Eastern background of the period; similarly he assigned the composition of the historical books of the Bible known as the "Former Prophets" to the 13th–10th centuries B.C.E. and most of the Psalms to the pre-Exilic period. Albright was one of the first scholars to authenticate the dead sea scrolls . His students include most of the prominent archaeologists of the later 20th and early 21st century in the United States and Israel, among them G.E. Wright, N. Glueck, and B. Maisler (Mazar). He also trained such eminent biblicists and Semiticists as J. Bright, F.M. Cross, D.N. Freedman, and W. Moran. Albright was the foremost biblical archaeologist of modern times, combining a devotion to evangelical Christianity with a scientific approach to the problems of archaeology and the Bible. While many of his broad syntheses of the Bible with archaeology came under criticism beginning in the 1970s, Albright must be credited for providing the very framework within which such criticism could occur. Likewise, his work on many aspects of Semitic philology remains invaluable. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: H.M. Orlinsky, An Indexed Bibliography of the Writings of William Foxwell Albright (1941); L. Finkelstein (ed.), American Spiritual Autobiographies (1948), 156–81; G.E. Wright (ed.), The Bible and the Ancient Near East (1961), includes bibliography up to 1958; A. Malamat (ed.), in: Eretz Israel, 9 (1969). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: L.G. Running, in: DBI 1, 22–23. (Michael Avi-Yonah)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Albright, William Foxwell — (1891–1972)    US biblical archaeologist. The son of a US Methodist minister, Albright became the doyen of modern biblical archaeologists and a father figure to a whole generation of younger American and Israel scholars in this field. He was… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • William Foxwell Albright — an der Hebräischen Universität von Jerusalem William Foxwell Albright (* 24. Mai 1891 in Coquimbo, Chile; † 19. September 1971 in Baltimore, USA) war ein US amerikanischer Archäologe und Orientalist. Von 1929 bis 1958 war er …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • William Foxwell Albright — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Albright. William Foxwell Albright William F. Albright est un archéologue américain (24 mai 1891 19 septembre 1971) qu …   Wikipédia en Français

  • William Foxwell Albright — nació el 24 de mayo de 1891 y murió el 20 de septiembre de 1971. Fue un destacado orientalista estadounidense, pionero de la arqueología, lingüista y experto en cerámica. Desde principios del siglo XX hasta su muerte fue el decano de los… …   Wikipedia Español

  • William F. Albright — William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891–September 19/September 20, 1971) was an American archaeologist, biblical scholar, linguist and expert on ceramics. From the early twentieth century until his death, he was the dean of biblical archaeologists …   Wikipedia

  • William Albright — William Foxwell Albright Pour les articles homonymes, voir Albright. William F. Albright est un archéologue américain (24 mai 1891 19 septembre 1971) qui un des premiers chercheurs de renommée mondiale à authenfier les parchemins retrouvés près… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • William F. Albright — William Foxwell Albright Pour les articles homonymes, voir Albright. William F. Albright est un archéologue américain (24 mai 1891 19 septembre 1971) qui un des premiers chercheurs de renommée mondiale à authenfier les parchemins retrouvés près… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Albright — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Ann Cooper Albright (* 1959), Choreografin und Publizistin Barbara Albright (* 1959), Kochbuchautorin Chris Albright (* 1979), amerikanischer Fußballspieler Daniel Albright (* 1945), amerikanischer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Albright —   [ ɔːlbraɪt],    1) Ivan Le Lorraine, amerikanischer Maler, * North Harvey (Illinois) 20. 2. 1897, ✝ Woodstock (Vermont) 18. 11. 1983; schildert in minutiöser Technik Themen der Vergänglichkeit und des Verfalls auf Porträts und… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Albright — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Albright peut désigner : Patronyme Albright est un nom de famille notamment porté par : Chris Albright (né en 1979), footballeur… …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.